Pre-War Timeline

From TNOpediA

This timeline of events preceding the events of The New Order: The Last Days of Europe covers the events of major importance (between 1920-1938) that affected the starting situation of nations, leading up to World War II

To view the latter timeline of events, please refer to Timeline of Events (1939-1961)

Years 1920-1929[edit | edit source]

1920[edit | edit source]

  • February 24: The National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP) is founded in Munich.

1921[edit | edit source]

  • November 9: The Italian National Fascist Party is established by Benito Mussolini following the Third Fascist Congress in Rome

1922[edit | edit source]

  • October 28: Benito Mussolini begins the March on Rome, a coup d'etat against the civilian government.
  • October 29: Benito Mussolini is appointed the Prime Minister of Italy following the March on Rome.
  • November 1: The Grand Assembly of Turkey abolishes the Ottoman Sultanate.

1923[edit | edit source]

  • January 26: The First Chinese United Front forms between the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party, with the aim of ending warlordism in China.
  • June: Hyperinflation due to mismanagement and war reparations destroys the value of the German Mark.
  • June 16: With the Red Army's victory over White Army Remnants in Yakutia, the Russian Civil War is finally over
  • October 29: Turkey offically becomes a Republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
  • November 8: The Munich Beer Hall Putsch takes place by NSDAP leaders, but is quashed by German Police soon after.

1924[edit | edit source]

  • January 21: Following a series of strokes, Vladimir Lenin dies. The ensuing power struggle to succeed his position as Leader of the USSR would be won by Nikolai Bukharin.
  • April 6: Italian Fascists win the 1924 general election with a 2/3 majority, ensuring the continued governance by the Fascists for the next 38 years.

1925[edit | edit source]

  • April 4: The Schutzstaffel (SS) is established as a personal bodyguard for NSDAP leadership, it would eventually grow in size and importance.
  • May 12: Retired Marshal Paul von Hindenburg is elected as President of Germany.

1926[edit | edit source]

  • December 25: Emperor Taishō dies, he is succeeded by his son Hirohito, as the Emperor of Japan.

1927[edit | edit source]

  • April 12: The Shanghai Massacre occurs. The execution of communists and socialists by the Kuomintang marks the end of the First Chinese United Front. This also marks the beginning of the Chinese Civil War, which evolved into a proxy war between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.
  • May 20: Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Jeddah, recognising the independence of the Kingdom.
  • December 14: Iraq gains its independence from the United Kingdom

1928[edit | edit source]

  • May 3: The Jinan Incident occurs, resulting in a limited conflict between the Empire of Japan and China. This incident would be the start of the deteriorating relations between Japan and China.
  • June 4: The Huanggutun Incident occurs, resulting in the assassination of Zhang Zuolin. This event would slowly precipitate into the invasion of Manchuria 4 years later.
  • October 1: The Soviet Union launches the first-5 year plan, an economic plan to increase industrialisation. The plans do not greatly succeed and are generally regarded as a failure.
  • November 6: Herbert Hoover wins the 1928 US Presidential Election, beating Al Smith

1929[edit | edit source]

  • March 28: Japan withdraws its troops from China, ending the Jinan Incident.
  • October 29: The Great Depression begins with the Wall Street Crash.

Years 1930-1938[edit | edit source]

1930[edit | edit source]

  • June 30: France withdraws all remaining troops in the Rhineland, ending French Occupation in the Region
  • September 14: The NSDAP rises to the second largest party in the Reichstag in the 1930 elections.

1931[edit | edit source]

  • September 18: The Mukden Incident occurs, leading to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

1932[edit | edit source]

  • January 28: The Shanghai Incident occurs, following a rise in anti-Japanese sentiment and violence. The IJA attack Shanghai in response. The event results in a ceasefire between the Empire of Japan and China.
  • February 27: Fighting in Manchuria ends between China and the Empire of Japan, resulting in Japanese control over Manchuria
  • March 1: Japan creates the puppet state of Manchukuo out of occupied Manchuria.
  • May 5: Shanghai is made a demilitarised zone following the Shanghai Incident. China is forbidden to garrison troops in the regions of Shanghai, Suzhou and Kunshan, whilst allowing a minor Japanese presence.
  • April 10: Paul von Hindenburg is reelected as President of Germany, beating Adolf Hitler in an run-off
  • November 8: Franklin Delano Roosevelt defeats Hebert Hoover in the 1932 US Presidential Election.

1933[edit | edit source]

  • January 30: Reich President Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reichskanzler, leading to his rise in power.
  • February 27: The Reichstag Fire occurs, leading to President Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Degree upon Hitler's insistence, allowing the Nazi Party emergency powers to crack down on dissent.
  • April 26: The Gestapo is established, a secret police that would eventually merge with the SS.
  • March 4: Franklin Delano Roosevelt is inaugurated as the President of the United States. He launches the New Deal economic program, aiming to counteract the effects of the Great Depression on the United States.
  • March 23: The Enabling Act is passed by the Reichstag, allowing the Chancellor of Germany to make and enforce laws without Presidential or the Reichstag's involvement. The act allows Adolf Hitler to rise as dictator.

1934[edit | edit source]

  • March 20: All German Police forces come under the command of Heinrich Himmler, increasing his influence amongst Hitler's inner circle.
  • June 30: The Night of The Long Knives occurs, with the murder of anti-Nazi conservatives and SA leaders such as Ernst Rohm, further consolidating Hitler's power over Germany.
  • July 20: The SS becomes an organisation independent of the Nazi Party, reporting directly to Adolf Hitler.
  • August 2: President Hidenburg dies, allowing Adolf Hitler to declare himself Fuhrer of Germany, whilst holding the office of Chancellor and Head of State simultaneously

1936[edit | edit source]

  • January 20: George V, King of the United Kingdom dies, with the Prince of Wales succeeding him as Edward VIII.
  • February 26: The February 26 Incident occurs, where 1400 personnel and officers of the Kohoda Faction stage a coup against the government. It fails, however, it has the effect of significantly increasing the military's influence over Japanese politics.
  • July 18: The Spanish Coup of July 1936 occurs, kickstarting the Spanish Civil War.

1937[edit | edit source]

  • July 7: The Marco Polo Bridge Incident occurs, leading to the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • May 28: Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • August: Higinio Morínigo becomes interim president of Paraguay following the overthrow of dictator Rafael Franco
  • August 8: Japanese troops occupy the city of Beijing
  • August 13: The Battle of Shanghai begins.
  • November 6: Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact.
  • November 26: Shanghai falls to the Japanese after Nationalist troops withdraw from the city.
  • December 1: The Battle of Nanking commences with Japanese forces attacking the city.

1938[edit | edit source]

  • March 13: The Anschluss of Austria occurs, resulting in the annexation of Austria into the German Reich.
  • September 30: The Munich Agreement is signed, resulting in the Sudetenland being annexed into the Reich.
  • November 9: Kristallnacht occurs, pogroms and mobs destroy, loot, burn and damage Jewish shops and synagouges, whilst 30.000 Jewish men are sent to the concentration camps.