Egypt

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(Redirected from Kingdom of Egypt)
Kingdom of Egypt
Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya
Flag of Egypt
Egypt in Light Green
Overlord Italy in Gray
Rest of Triumvirate in Dark Green

TAG = EGY
Politics
CapitalCairo
Ruling Party Alawiyya Dynasty (العلوية)
Head of StateKing Umberto II
Head of GovernmentAmedeo di Savoia-Aosta
Diplomacy
Sphere Italian Sphere
Foreign Alignment Triumvirate
Client Member
Economy
GDP$3.49BB
Credit Rating Good
Market Type Planned Economy

Egypt (Italian: Egitto, Arabic: Miṣr), officially the Kingdom of Egypt (Italian: Regno d'Egitto, Arabic: Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya), is a country in north Africa, and member of the Triumvirate. Egypt is a constitutional monarchy under the reign of King Farouk I, with Mostafa El-Nahas serving as Prime Minister. Farouk has shown himself to be a dishonest and incompetent leader who has no interest in leading his nation; instead, he leaves that responsibility to his Prime Minister and Egypt's Italian overlords.

Egypt borders Italian Libya, Kanem, and Cameroon to its west, the Italian Levant to its east, Italian East Africa to its south-east, and the Reichskommissariats of Ostafrika and Zentralafrika to its south. Egypt claims sovereignty over the Suez Canal, however it is directly administered by Italy.

Background[1][edit | edit source]

History (OTL and TNOTL)[edit | edit source]

Sultunate and Kingdom[edit | edit source]

Formerly, the nation was governed as the Egypt Eyalet during the Ottoman era, and then as the independent tributary state of the Khedivate of Egypt, under the leadership of the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

After supporting the Ottoman Empire and the Central Powers during World War I, Khedive Abbas II was overthrown by the British in 1914 and his uncle Hussein Kamel took over, establishing the Sultanate of Egypt. In the process, formally ending Ottoman control over Egypt, which had been little more than a legal farce since 1805. Egypt was then subsequently made a British protectorate and Hussein Kamel was proclaimed sultan.

Interwar Era[edit | edit source]

The Wafd group, led by political leader Saad Zaghlul, attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 to demand Egypt's independence. The First Revolution, which began in March to April 1919, led to mass demonstrations and uprisings in Egypt. In November 1919, the Milner Commission was sent to Egypt to resolve the situation. In 1920, Lord Milner recommended replacing the protectorate with a treaty of alliance. An Egyptian mission led by Zaghlul and Adli Pasha was sent to London to discuss the proposals. The agreement was concluded in August 1920, and in February 1921, the British Parliament approved the agreement. Egypt was asked to send another mission to London to conclude a definitive treaty. However, the Dominion delegates at the 1921 Imperial Conference stressed the importance of maintaining control over the Suez Canal Zone, and the mission returned to Egypt in disgust.

In December 1921, British authorities in Cairo imposed martial law and deported Zaghlul. Demonstrations again led to violence. In 1922, the UK recognized Egyptian independence, abolishing the protectorate and converting the Sultanate of Egypt into the Kingdom of Egypt. Sarwat Pasha became prime minister. British influence continued to dominate Egypt's political life and fostered fiscal, administrative, and governmental reforms. In 1924, Zaghlul was elected Prime Minister, demanding recognition of Egyptian sovereignty in Sudan and the unity of the Nile Valley. However, the British demanded an apology fee and withdrawal of troops from Sudan.

British Recognition of Partial Egyptian Independence[edit | edit source]

As nationalist feeling increased, Egypt's independence was legally acknowledged by Britain in 1922. Sultan Fuad I, the successor to Hussein Kamel, replaced the title of Sultan with that of King. Nonetheless, British influence continued to exist in Egyptian politics. Egypt was particularly concerned about Britain's ongoing attempts to strip Egypt of all authority in Sudan. Fuad and his son King Farouk I were considered "Kings of Egypt and Sudan" by the Egyptian government since this was unacceptable to both the King and the nationalist movement.

World War II East African Campaign[2][edit | edit source]

During World War II, Egypt's government and army were legally neutral, with the British making it a major base of operations against Italy and Germany. London's top priority was controlling the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly the Suez Canal, for merchant ships and military connections with its dominions of India and Australia. Egypt played a minor role in the North African campaign, participating in battles during the Italian Invasion of Egypt, with the Battle of Sidi Barrani, and the First and Second Battles of El Alamein fought on its soil. In September 1939, Egypt declared martial law and broke off diplomatic relations with Germany. In 1940, it broke off diplomatic relations with Italy but never declared war. King Farouk took a neutral position, and the army remained apathetic, with leading officers viewing the British as occupiers and occasionally holding private sympathies towards the Axis. In June 1940, the King dismissed Prime Minister Aly Maher, leading to the formation of a new coalition government with Hassan Pasha Sabri as Prime Minister and Hussein Sirri Pasha as Prime Minister.

The collapse of France and the destruction of the British Expeditionary Force in Europe led the United Kingdom to recall its military presence in its colonial territories to the British Isles. The Viceroy, who was no longer outnumbered, conducted more traditional offensives, with the first major success being the Battle of Bahir Dar. The Viceroy's focus on small offensives aimed at pestering the enemy rather than pursuing ultimate victories made the Allies unable to defend against a strong offensive in any one area.

In July 1942, the Italian and Germans broke through the Allies' front line and captured a key supply depot. In September, the remaining British colonial army was surrounded and forced to surrender, leaving British Africa defended by a contingent of less than 19,000 men. Italian forces seized the Suez and Levantine territories, joining forces with the Iraqi fascist uprising and securing its oil wells for the Axis. They also captured Sudan and linked Italian Libya with the stranded East African colony.

With reinforcements, supplies, and air support, the Viceroy broke the siege and inflicted a devastating defeat on the Allies at the Battle of Amba Alagi.

Post-World War II Era (Reconstruction Period)[edit | edit source]

After the war, The Pro-British Government in Egypt was ousted and was replaced with King Farouk I from the Alawiyya Dynasty (العلوية). Egypt lost access to the Suez Canal to the Italians. However, the Egyptians gained most of former British Sudan. Since Egypt was under the Italian sphere of influence, the Egyptians would eventually join the Triumvirate during it's creation in the 1950s. Most British troops that were captured would be repatriated back to Britain.

Despite this, Nationalist and anti-Italian sentiment continued to grow after the War. Anti-monarchy sentiments further increased after the Italians seized all Egyptian assets and corporations present within the country, making it seem like the Italians were treating the Egyptians like a Third-World Country or a colony of their empire. Anti-Italian Sentiment began to rise after King Farouk I was seen as an incompetent fool who couldn't care less about the politics and demographics of the country and instead spent most of his time partying, leaving the Prime Minister to do all the work. When he was crowned, Farouk had very liberal ambitions before the British stripped him of all his authority. In the Egypt teaser, he's since become a puppet to the Italian overlords who truly run the country.

In-Game[2][edit | edit source]

Politics[edit | edit source]

In-Game, Farouk I is seen nothing other than a figurehead used by the Italians to control Egypt. His former support base has turned on him for failing to reform the country in any capacity. Being exploited as a puppet ruler to various foreign powers for nearly his entire life has disillusioned Farouk and turned him from a liberal reformer to the hedonist he is. Soon after the game begins, Farouk dies during one of his parties, leaving the Egyptian monarchy in crisis. Farouk died doing what he loves the most, the way he lived, spending his day in one of his luxurious parties and choking on his favorite food. The Italians attempt to fill the power vacuum left by his death by deploying soldiers there. The mourners and soldiers brawl as they demand that all Italian forces leave the nation immediately. The mourners are still upset over the brutal Italian occupation during the "Emergenza" and the excesses of the nobility. The Wafd Party's control over Egypt is weakened by this political crisis, which also ignites a political dialogue between the Wafd, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Free Officers Movement.

Parties and Factions[edit | edit source]

Name Ideology Leader
al-'Alawiyya Aristocratic Conservatism

Colonial Government

Muhammed Abdel Moneim

Adalberto di Savoia-Genova

Ḥizb al-Wafd Provisional Government

Social Nationalism National Conservatism Populist Conservatism

Anwar Sadat

Mostafa El-Nahas Fuad Serragedine

Egyptian Army Military Junta Mohammed Naguib
Muslim Brotherhood Islamic Modernism Hussein Al-Hudaybi
al-'Usra al-'Alawiyya Aristocratic Conservatism King Farouk I

References[edit | edit source]