Mengjiang

From TNOpediA
Mengjiang United Autonomous Government
Монголын Өөртөө Засах Холбоот Засгийн Ордон
Mongolyn Öörtöö Zasakh Kholboot Zasgiin Ordon
Flag of Mengjiang
TAG = MEN
Politics
CapitalKalgan
Ruling Party Mongolian Rehabilitation Committee
Head of StateChairman Prince
Demchugdongrub
Head of GovernmentVice Chairman
Li Shouxin
Diplomacy
Sphere Co-Prosperity Sphere
Foreign Alignment Chinese Warlord,
Co-Prosperity Sphere
Economy
GDP$1.20B
Credit Rating Fair
Market Type Planned Economy

Mengjiang, officially the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government and also referred to as Mengukuo or Mongolia, is a Japanese puppet state in East Asia. It borders the Republic of China, Shaanxi, Seihoku Homengun and the 40th Army Group to the south, the Xinjiang Border Defense Administration to the west, Manchukuo to the east; Oyrotia, the People's Revolutionary Council, Irkutsk, Buryatia and Chita to the north.

Though du jure part of China, it is de facto effectively independent. Mengjiang is a member of the Co-Prosperity Sphere.

History[edit | edit source]

Following Japan's occupation of Manchuria in 1931 and the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo, the Empire of Japan sought to expand its influence in Mongolia and North China. In a series of military actions, starting in 1933, the armies of Manchukuo and Japan occupied Chahar.

In 1936, these occupied regions proclaimed itself the independent Mongol Military Government, allied with Japan under Prince Demchugdongrub. Formed on May 12, 1936, the Mongol Military Government had Prince Yondonwangchug of Ulanqab as its first chairman. It was renamed in October 1937 as the Mongol United Autonomous Government. Between this time and 1937, military operations undertaken by the Japanese military in Suiyuan saw the occupation and absorption of the province into the new puppet government.

It was out of the ashes of the Mongol Local Autonomy Political Affairs Committee’s territory (The Pailingmiao Council), that Prince Demchugdongrub was put on the throne of this new fledgling nation, with generals such as Li Shouxin at his side. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Mongolians in Mengjiang served against the Chinese United Front, helping in the advances past the Taihang Mountains and into Shanxi and Shaanxi, and also in the invasion of the Northwest.

On September 1, 1939, the predominantly Han Chinese governments of South Chahar and North Shanxi were merged with the Mongol United Autonomous Government, creating the new Mengjiang United Autonomous Government. The capital was established at Zhangbei near Kalgan, with the government's control extending around Hohhot.

In 1939, Wang Jingwei reorganized his own cabinet in preparation for a Japanese puppet state, with its capital in Nanjing. Mengjiang was nominally incorporated into the regime in 1940, though it remained autonomous from Nanjing. This was done by General Li Shouxin, an important and extremely influential figure in Mengjiang, who signed the agreement in Qingdao, declaring it to be officially part of China as the Mongol Autonomous Federation, but the territory stayed de facto independent.

On August 4, 1941, it was again renamed: the Mongolian Autonomous State. The term "state" was specifically chosen to appease both the Chinese and Mengjiang governments, as both "state" and "country" translated to ulus (улс) in Mongolian, which means "country". Thus, the name in Chinese implied Mengjiang to be an autonomous region of China, whereas in Mongolian the name implied it to be an independent state.